Wednesday, February 7, 2007


The human body is composed primarily of water, and it has a very similar density to water. Roughly 70% of the body is water; while the lungs are filled with the air, the body is slightly less dense than the surrounding water, and there is a net upward force on the body. Thus staying afloat requires only a slight propelling of water downward relative to the body, and transverse motion only a slight propelling of water in a direction opposite to the direction of intended motion. This propelling is accomplished by using the hands and forearms as paddles, and by kicking the legs and feet to push water away from the body (though kicking accounts for relatively little overall). Since salt water (e.g., the ocean) is denser than fresh water (e.g., most swimming pools), less effort is required to stay afloat in salt water than in fresh water.

A number of swimming styles have been developed based on the implementation of some or all of the following principles:The torso and the legs should be kept as parallel as possible to the surface of the water. Dropped legs or a slanted torso dramatically increase drag. The hand should be extended forward of the head as much as possible. This increases the average length at the water-line, substantially increasing speed.

Recent research has shown that hand force applied to the water is really generated by the rotation of the hips, and not by the muscles of the arm. The muscles that pull the arm through the water are attached within one inch of the top of the arm. With a 21" arm, the lever ratio is 1:20, which means that a 100 lbs. of pull by the shoulder muscles produces only 5 lbs. of force at the hand as it pushes back against the water. The torque generated by the larger, stronger hip muscles, on the other hand, whips the hands through the water, much like golfers or batters whip their clubs and bats through the air with a fast turn of the hips. Elite swimmers who were able to make modest increases in the acceleration of their hips doubled their peak hand force output.

The time spent on the side should be maximized so the shoulders do not break the water-line and do not produce bow waves. This reduces the frontal cross-section, reducing drag further, and also increasing the ratio between the body's water-line-length and width. Similar improvements are possible by orienting the narrowest direction of head, hands, legs and arms into the water. The torso is by far the most critical. The motion of the hand, arm, and leg from the back to the front should be in the air for as much time during the recovery stroke as possible, and in the water, oriented as hydrodynamically as possible, because the returning appendage has to move at least twice as fast as the swimmer, and in the water generates eight times the drag (which increases with the cube of the speed) of an equal amount of torso frontal area. Rotating your shoulders also adds power to one's pull by using abdominal muscles to help pull the arm through the water.

The basic "catch" of the water is not nearly as critical as the above items. Most swimmers simply grab water with their hand flat, or the fingers slightly spread, and then draw it smoothly down their body. None of the above techniques require improved strength. With strength training, the hands and feet can be extended further into the water, gaining more propulsion. For beginners, increased strength brings only small improvements if the above strategies (minimising drag and lengthening water-line) are not optimal.

Another technique that can help an athlete swim at a higher performance level is proper breathing techniques. Breathing correctly can make you swim faster and make it harder for you to be fatigued. Competitive swimmers take in one breath and gradually let it out over three to four strokes. As the race progresses and the swimmer becomes tired, less oxygen from those breaths reach his muscles. You can practice and teach your body how to run on less than normal levels of oxygen. Take a deep breath at one side of a pool, submerge yourself fully, and kick like a dolphin. Try to simulate a torpedo. Try crossing the pool with one breath, and once you can do that extend the distance. Another way you can practice endurance is by taking a breath and letting it out over six strokes (while freestyle swimming).

Skeletal animation and computational fluid dynamics allow simulation of swimmers. This allows to quantify forces on joints and muscles, and, if multiple simulations are employed, to compare different styles or individuals. By means of computer graphics or motion capture the simulation can be compared to real swimmers. While this removes many doubts, it is still guess work needed to create new styles, it is a didactic challenge to formulate a manual for swimmers, and the feel of the water is still needed to close a control loop so that the swimming styles does not drift away afterwards

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